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La primera lección


¡Hola a todos! (Hello everyone)


My name is Mikail Stewart and I will be presenting you all with the necessary information for CSEC Spanish. The following blog posts should accomplish the following: 1. They should provide students with a thorough understanding of the elements of the Spanish language. 2. They should give students a comprehensive review of the topics that would be covered during your high school years.

3. Each post will provide various exercises to help students understand and master the information presented.


Now with introductions out of the way, let's begin learning Spanish


Before we begin here are two links to refresher videos on how the letters in Spanish are pronounced, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CkPMSWJbF1M https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sh7MLrbxH2E

PRESENT TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS


What are regular verbs you may ask? Well, in Spanish (and most other languages), verbs may be classified into two types: Regular and Irregular.


A regular verb is a verb that follows the regular conjugation patterns of a language whilst, an irregular verb as you might have guessed is a verb that deviates from this regular pattern.


Before we take a look at the conjugation of the regular verbs we first need to take a look at the subject pronouns in Spanish, so that we can learn how to accurately speak about who is doing an action.


What are the subject pronouns?


SUBJECT PRONOUNS


Yo - First person singular pronoun, I in English.

Tú - Second person informal singular pronoun, You in English.

Usted - Second person formal singular pronoun, You in English (if you are speaking to your teacher or person of higher authority than you or a complete stranger).

Él, Ella - Third person singular pronoun, He/She in English.

Nosotros/as - First person plural pronoun, We in English.

Vosotros/as - Second person informal plural ( Used when referring to a group of people at or below your rank of authority) You all/ You guys in English

Ustedes - Second person formal plural ( Same use as usted however it refers to a group of people at a higher rank of authority than you or complete strangers). You all in English

Ellos, Ellas - Third person plural pronoun. They in English. (Ellos is used for a group that has a mix of the two genders)


CONJUGATION


The present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending ( -ar, -er, -ir) and adding the following endings:


-ar verbs: -o, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an

-er verbs: -0, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en

-ir verbs: -0, -es, -e, -imos, -ís, -en


The present tense carries any of the following meanings:

Yo como - I eat, I am eating, I do eat

Usted baila - You dance, You are dancing, You do dance

Ellos viven - They live, They are living, They do live


USING THE PRESENT TENSE


Using the present tense we can express some of the following ideas:


  1. An affirmative statement/ positive statement, eg - You like apples

  2. A negative statement, eg - You don't like apples

  3. An affirmative question, eg - Do you like apples?

  4. A negative question, eg - Do you not like apples?

Affirmative Statement


In an affirmative statement the sentence structure is, subject then conjugated verb then object.


Yo como la comida


Yo - I - subject

Como - eat - verb

La comida - food - object


The subject is the person or thing carrying out an action,

The verb is the action that the subject is carrying out.

The object is the receiver of the subjects action in the sentence.


Negative Statement


In a negative statement , the word "no" follows the subject and goes immediately before the verb


Yo no como la comida


I do not eat food


Placing the word "no" immediately before the verb indicates that the action has been negated in other words the subject is not carrying out this action.


Affirmative Question


In an affirmative question the subject usually follows the verb.


¿Comen ellos la comida? - Do they eat food?


Negative Question


In a negative question the word "no" is placed before the verb and the verb is placed before the subject.


¿No comen ellos la comida? - Do they not eat food?


NB - In Spanish the subject pronouns are often omitted


Como comida - I eat food Unless you are emphasizing ¿Comes tu comida? - Do you eat food?



This covers the first topic in the Spanish blog


Here are some frequently used verbs


-AR Verbs


Ayudar - to help

Bajar - to go down/ descend

Borrar - to erase

Buscar - to search for

Caminar - to walk

Cantar - to sing

Coleccionar - to collect

Comprar - to buy

Contestar - to answer

Cultivar - to cultivate

Dejar - to leave. let, allow

Descansar - to rest

Desear - to wish

Enseñar - to teach

Entrar - to teach

Escuchar - to listen to

Esperar - to wait for, to await, to hope, to expect

Estudiar - to study

Explicar - to explain

Gritar - to shout

Hablar - to speak, to talk

Hallar - to find

Invitar - to invite

Llenar - to fill

Llevar - to carry, to wear

Mirar - to look at, to watch

Necesitar - to need

Pagar - to pay for

Pasar - to pass, to spend time

Patinar - to skate

Practicar - to practice

Preguntar - to ask

Preparar - to prepare

Quitar - to take away

Regresar - to return

Sacar - to take out, to take (photo)

Tomar - to take

Trabajar - to work

Usar - to use

Viajar - to travel

Visitar - to visit


-ER


Aprender - to learn

Beber - to drink

Comer - to eat

Comprender - to understand

Correr - to run

Creer - to believe

Deber - to have to, to owe

Esconder - to hide

Leer - to read

Prometer - to promise

Responder -to answer

Vender - to sell



-IR


Abrir - to open

Asistir a - to attend

Cubrir - to cover

Decidir - to decide

Describir - to describe

Dividir - to divide

Escribir - to write

Insistir en - to insist on

Partir - to leave, to depart

Permitir - to allow, to permit

Recibir - to receive

Subir - to go up, to climb

Sufrir - to suffer

Vivir - to live



As you can see majority of Spanish verbs are -AR verbs. This list is made up of frequently used regular verbs it would be beneficial for you learn these verbs and learn how each verb is properly pronounced.


In the next blog post we will speak about "The Present Tense of Stem-Changing Verbs".

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